Molecular Forces and Self Assembly (Cambridge Molecular Science)

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    Molecular Forces and Self Assembly : Barry W. Ninham :

    Dmitri Bessarabov. Adsorption of Gases on Heterogeneous Surfaces. Chemical Dissolution of Metal Oxides. Miguel A Blesa. Luigi Nicolais. Supramolecular chemistry, and template-directed synthesis in particular, is key to the efficient synthesis of the compounds. Examples of mechanically interlocked molecular architectures include catenanes , rotaxanes , molecular knots , molecular Borromean rings [20] and ravels.

    In dynamic covalent chemistry covalent bonds are broken and formed in a reversible reaction under thermodynamic control. While covalent bonds are key to the process, the system is directed by non-covalent forces to form the lowest energy structures. Many synthetic supramolecular systems are designed to copy functions of biological systems.

    These biomimetic architectures can be used to learn about both the biological model and the synthetic implementation. Examples include photoelectrochemical systems, catalytic systems, protein design and self-replication. Molecular imprinting describes a process by which a host is constructed from small molecules using a suitable molecular species as a template.

    After construction, the template is removed leaving only the host. The template for host construction may be subtly different from the guest that the finished host binds to. In its simplest form, imprinting utilizes only steric interactions, but more complex systems also incorporate hydrogen bonding and other interactions to improve binding strength and specificity.

    Molecular machines are molecules or molecular assemblies that can perform functions such as linear or rotational movement, switching, and entrapment. These devices exist at the boundary between supramolecular chemistry and nanotechnology , and prototypes have been demonstrated using supramolecular concepts. Fraser Stoddart and Bernard L. Feringa shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the 'design and synthesis of molecular machines'.

    Supramolecular systems are rarely designed from first principles. Rather, chemists have a range of well-studied structural and functional building blocks that they are able to use to build up larger functional architectures. Many of these exist as whole families of similar units, from which the analog with the exact desired properties can be chosen.

    Macrocycles are very useful in supramolecular chemistry, as they provide whole cavities that can completely surround guest molecules and may be chemically modified to fine-tune their properties. Many supramolecular systems require their components to have suitable spacing and conformations relative to each other, and therefore easily employed structural units are required. Supramolecular chemistry has found many applications, [31] in particular molecular self-assembly processes have been applied to the development of new materials. Large structures can be readily accessed using bottom-up synthesis as they are composed of small molecules requiring fewer steps to synthesize.

    Thus most of the bottom-up approaches to nanotechnology are based on supramolecular chemistry. A major application of supramolecular chemistry is the design and understanding of catalysts and catalysis. Non-covalent interactions are extremely important in catalysis, binding reactants into conformations suitable for reaction and lowering the transition state energy of reaction. Template-directed synthesis is a special case of supramolecular catalysis. Encapsulation systems such as micelles , dendrimers , and cavitands [35] are also used in catalysis to create microenvironments suitable for reactions or steps in reactions to progress that is not possible to use on a macroscopic scale.

    Molecular Forces and Self Assembly : In Colloid, Nano Sciences and Biology

    Design based on supramolecular chemistry has led to numerous applications in the creation of functional biomaterials and therapeutics. These include systems based on supramolecular assembly of peptides, host—guest macrocycles, high-affinity hydrogen bonding, and metal—ligand interactions.

    A supramolecular approach has been used extensively to create artificial ion channels for the transport of sodium and potassium ions into and out of cells. Supramolecular chemistry is also important to the development of new pharmaceutical therapies by understanding the interactions at a drug binding site. The area of drug delivery has also made critical advances as a result of supramolecular chemistry providing encapsulation and targeted release mechanisms.

    Supramolecular chemistry has been used to demonstrate computation functions on a molecular scale. In many cases, photonic or chemical signals have been used in these components, but electrical interfacing of these units has also been shown by supramolecular signal transduction devices. Data storage has been accomplished by the use of molecular switches with photochromic and photoisomerizable units, by electrochromic and redox -switchable units, and even by molecular motion. Synthetic molecular logic gates have been demonstrated on a conceptual level.

    Even full-scale computations have been achieved by semi-synthetic DNA computers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Supramolecular catalysis. Bibcode : Sci Supramolecular Chemistry. Angewandte Chemie International Edition.

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    Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English. European Journal of Organic Chemistry. Throughout the book they question assumptions, unearth flaws and present new results and ideas.